Total Cholesterol is a soft, fat-like, waxy substance found in the bloodstream
and in all of your body’s cells. Cholesterol is an important part of a healthy
body because it’s used for producing cell membranes, some hormones and
serves other needed bodily functions. When there is too much cholesterol in
your blood, it builds up in your arteries and can eventually increase your
chances of developing heart disease.[1}
HDL Cholesterol is known as the “good” cholesterol because high levels of HDL can
protect against heart disease. Medical experts believe HDL carries LDL cholesterol
away from the arteries and removes excess cholesterol from arterial plaque, slowing
its buildup. Higher HDL is desirable. Lower HDL may increase the risk of heart
A1C test: The A1C is also called HbA1c or hemoglobin A1C. A1C provides an indication of average blood glucose control for the past 2-3 months. Hemoglobin is part of the red blood cells. The A1C complex is formed when the glucose in the blood binds irreversibly to hemoglobin (glycates). The higher the glucose level in the blood, the more that binds to the hemoglobin. Therefore, A1C values are proportional to the amount of glucose in the blood. The A1C result may be displayed in either percentage (%) units or mmol/mol units, depending on country. A1C reflects the amount of the hemoglobin that is glycated. Hemoglobin remains glycated for the lifespan of the red blood cell, about 90-120 days. Therefore, the A1C test reflects average blood glucose control for the past 2-3 months.[4,6]
Cotinine is a product formed after the chemical nicotine enters the body. Nicotine is a chemical found in tobacco products, including cigarettes and chewing tobacco. Measuring cotinine in people's blood is the most reliable way to determine exposure to nicotine for both smokers and nonsmokers exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Measuring cotinine is preferred to measuring nicotine because cotinine remains in the body longer.[9,10]
Cortisol, a glucocorticoid (steroid hormone), is produced from cholesterol in the two adrenal glands located on top of each kidney. It is normally released in response to events and circumstances such as waking up in the morning, exercising and acute stress. Cortisol’s far-reaching, systemic effects play many roles in the body’s effort to carry out its processes and maintain homeostasis.
High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein (hs-CRP)
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
- http://www.heart.org/HEARTORG/Conditions/Cholesterol/AboutCholesterol/About-Cholesterol_UCM_001220_Article.jsp and http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cholesterol-Physiology.aspx
- Jarvis, M.J.; Promatesta, P.; Erens, B.; Feyerabend, C.; Bryant, A., Measuring nicotine intake in a population surveys: Comparability of saliva cotinine and plasma cotinine estimates. Nicotine and Tobacco Research 2003, 5 (3), 349-355.
- Agaku, I. T.; Vardavas, C.I.; Connolly, G.N., Cigarette rod length and its impact on serum cotinine and urinary total NNAL levels, NHANES 2007-2010 Nicotine & Tobacco Research 2014, 16 (1), 100-107.
- Stewart PM, Krone NP. The adrenal cortex. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 12th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 15